Railway Track is a structure composed of steel rails, sleepers, connecting parts, track beds, turnouts and other ancillary equipment. It bears varying vertical, horizontal and longitudinal static and dynamic loads. The load is transferred from the rails to the subgrade through the sleepers and the track bed. It plays an important role in railway transportation.
The rail is the main component of the track. It is used to guide the progress of the wheels of urban rail trolley buses and bear the huge pressure of the wheels, and spread the load on the sleepers, track beds and subgrades. The rail must provide a continuous, smooth and least resistance rolling surface for the wheels. In the electrified track or automatic block section, the Rail can also be used as a track circuit only. It also doubles as a return flow in urban rail transit.
The classification of track types is mainly based on operating conditions such as railway traffic volume, rolling stock axle load, and driving speed. The best track structure must ensure that the train is stable, safe and uninterrupted at the specified maximum speed under the given operating conditions. Ground operation, effectively transfer the load to the railway subgrade, and combine with a reasonable track material use and maintenance system to minimize the sum of equipment depreciation, construction investment interest, and equipment maintenance costs.
The content of the track type includes the type of rail, the type of connecting parts, the type and configuration of sleepers, the material of the track bed and the cross-sectional size, and the railway lines are often divided into track grades according to different operating conditions. Different countries have different classification standards for track types. my country's railways divide track into four types: light, medium, secondary and heavy.
The reason why the track is divided into types is to make the track as a whole according to the specific operating conditions of the railway, so that the functions of the various parts of the track are coordinated with each other, and the coordination of the interaction between the track, the vehicle and the roadbed is considered.
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