Here is China Welding Clamp Factory talking about Rail Pads.
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Rail Pads can prevent rail sleeper abrasion and the crushing of the sleeper under the rail foot. Rubber rail pads are normally designed to a specified load-deflection characteristic. The initial stiffness of the rail pad is designed to be low so that that their deformations under the springs toe loads are quite substantial. This ensures that the rail pad remains in intimate contact with the rail despite any vertical movements of the latter. When the wheel is over the pad, the rail pad stiffness must be high to prevent large movements which can result in the metal spring becoming loose. Such a load-deflection characteristic can be obtained by introducing grooves in the rubber rail pads. A rubber pad or grooved rubber rail pad are made up of rubber or plastic to dampen the shocks of vibrations of a passing train. Next, I will show you more about three types of rail pads widely used in the railway system.